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14 Mar 2019 143 views
 
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photoblog image Apostrophe....everything you ever wanted to know

Apostrophe....everything you ever wanted to know

Are you uncertain about when to use an apostrophe? Many people have difficulty with this punctuation mark. The best way to get apostrophes right is to understand when and why they are used. There are two main cases – click on the links below to find straightforwardguidance:

People are often unsure about whether they should use its (without an apostrophe) or it(with an apostrophe). For information about this, you can go straight to the section it's or its?

Apostrophes showing possession

You use an apostrophe to show that a thing or person belongs or relates to someone or something: instead of saying the party of Ben or the weather of yesterday, you can write Ben’s party and yesterday’s weather.

Here are the main guidelines for using apostrophes to show possession:

Singular nouns and most personal names

With a singular noun or most personal names: add an apostrophe plus s:

We met at Ben’s party.

The dog’s tail wagged rapidly.

Yesterday’s weather was dreadful.

Personal names that end in –s

With personal names that end in -s: add an apostrophe plus s when you would naturallypronounce an extra s if you said the word out loud:

He joined Charles’s army in 1642.

Dickens's novels provide a wonderful insight into Victorian England.

Thomas's brother was injured in the accident.

Note that there are some exceptions to this rule, especially in names of places or organizations, for example:

St Thomas’ Hospital

If you aren’t sure about how to spell a name, look it up in an official place such as the organization’s website.

With personal names that end in -s but are not spoken with an extra s: just add an apostrophe after the -s:

The court dismissed Bridges' appeal.

Connors' finest performance was in 1991.

Plural nouns that end in –s

With a plural noun that already ends in -s: add an apostrophe after the s:

The mansion was converted into a girls’ school.

The work is due to start in two weeks’ time.

My duties included cleaning out the horses’ stables.

Plural nouns that do not end in -s

With a plural noun that doesn’t end in –s: add an apostrophe plus s:

The children’s father came round to see me.

He employs 14 people at his men’s clothing store.

The only cases in which you do not need an apostrophe to show belonging is in the group of words called possessive pronouns - these are the words hishersoursyourstheirs (meaning ‘belonging to him, her, us, you, or them’) - and with the possessive determiners. These are the words hishersitsouryourtheir (meaning 'belonging to or associated with him, her, it, us, you, or them'). See also it's or its?

Apostrophes showing omission

An apostrophe can be used to show that letters or numbers have been omitted. Here are some examples of apostrophes that indicate missing letters:

I’m - short for I am

he’ll - short for he will

she’d – short for she had or she would

pick ’n’ mix - short for pick and mix

it’s hot - short for it is hot

didn’t - short for did not

It also shows that numbers have been omitted, especially in dates, e.g. the Berlin Wall came down in the autumn of ’89 (short for 1989).

It’s or its?

These two words can cause a lot of confusion: many people are uncertain about whether or not to use an apostrophe. These are the rules to remember:

The dog wagged its tail.

Each case is judged on its own merits.

It’s been a long day.

It’s cold outside.

It’s a comfortable car and it’s got some great gadgets.

Apostrophes and plural forms

The general rule is that you should not use an apostrophe to form the plurals of nouns, abbreviations, or dates made up of numbers: just add -s (or -es, if the noun in question forms its plural with -es). For example:

euro euros (e.g. The cost of the trip is 570 euros.)
pizza pizzas (e.g. Traditional Italian pizzas are thin and crisp.)
apple apples (e.g. She buys big bags of organic apples and carrots.)
MP MPs (e.g. Local MPs are divided on this issue.)
1990 1990s (e.g. The situation was different in the 1990s.)

It's very important to remember this grammatical rule.

There are one or two cases in which it is acceptable to use an apostrophe to form a plural, purely for the sake of clarity:

I've dotted the i's and crossed the t's.

Find all the p's in appear.

Find all the number 7’s.

These are the only cases in which it is generally considered acceptable to use an apostrophe to form plurals: remember that an apostrophe should never be used to form the plural of ordinary nouns, names, abbreviations, or numerical dates.

You can read more rules and guidelines about apostrophes on the Oxford Dictionaries blog. Here you will find further examples of correct and incorrect use of apostrophes.

 

Apostrophe....everything you ever wanted to know

Are you uncertain about when to use an apostrophe? Many people have difficulty with this punctuation mark. The best way to get apostrophes right is to understand when and why they are used. There are two main cases – click on the links below to find straightforwardguidance:

People are often unsure about whether they should use its (without an apostrophe) or it(with an apostrophe). For information about this, you can go straight to the section it's or its?

Apostrophes showing possession

You use an apostrophe to show that a thing or person belongs or relates to someone or something: instead of saying the party of Ben or the weather of yesterday, you can write Ben’s party and yesterday’s weather.

Here are the main guidelines for using apostrophes to show possession:

Singular nouns and most personal names

With a singular noun or most personal names: add an apostrophe plus s:

We met at Ben’s party.

The dog’s tail wagged rapidly.

Yesterday’s weather was dreadful.

Personal names that end in –s

With personal names that end in -s: add an apostrophe plus s when you would naturallypronounce an extra s if you said the word out loud:

He joined Charles’s army in 1642.

Dickens's novels provide a wonderful insight into Victorian England.

Thomas's brother was injured in the accident.

Note that there are some exceptions to this rule, especially in names of places or organizations, for example:

St Thomas’ Hospital

If you aren’t sure about how to spell a name, look it up in an official place such as the organization’s website.

With personal names that end in -s but are not spoken with an extra s: just add an apostrophe after the -s:

The court dismissed Bridges' appeal.

Connors' finest performance was in 1991.

Plural nouns that end in –s

With a plural noun that already ends in -s: add an apostrophe after the s:

The mansion was converted into a girls’ school.

The work is due to start in two weeks’ time.

My duties included cleaning out the horses’ stables.

Plural nouns that do not end in -s

With a plural noun that doesn’t end in –s: add an apostrophe plus s:

The children’s father came round to see me.

He employs 14 people at his men’s clothing store.

The only cases in which you do not need an apostrophe to show belonging is in the group of words called possessive pronouns - these are the words hishersoursyourstheirs (meaning ‘belonging to him, her, us, you, or them’) - and with the possessive determiners. These are the words hishersitsouryourtheir (meaning 'belonging to or associated with him, her, it, us, you, or them'). See also it's or its?

Apostrophes showing omission

An apostrophe can be used to show that letters or numbers have been omitted. Here are some examples of apostrophes that indicate missing letters:

I’m - short for I am

he’ll - short for he will

she’d – short for she had or she would

pick ’n’ mix - short for pick and mix

it’s hot - short for it is hot

didn’t - short for did not

It also shows that numbers have been omitted, especially in dates, e.g. the Berlin Wall came down in the autumn of ’89 (short for 1989).

It’s or its?

These two words can cause a lot of confusion: many people are uncertain about whether or not to use an apostrophe. These are the rules to remember:

  • its (without an apostrophe) means ‘belonging to it’:

The dog wagged its tail.

Each case is judged on its own merits.

  • it’s (with an apostrophe) means ‘it is’ or ‘it has’:

It’s been a long day.

It’s cold outside.

It’s a comfortable car and it’s got some great gadgets.

Apostrophes and plural forms

The general rule is that you should not use an apostrophe to form the plurals of nouns, abbreviations, or dates made up of numbers: just add -s (or -es, if the noun in question forms its plural with -es). For example:

euro euros (e.g. The cost of the trip is 570 euros.)
pizza pizzas (e.g. Traditional Italian pizzas are thin and crisp.)
apple apples (e.g. She buys big bags of organic apples and carrots.)
MP MPs (e.g. Local MPs are divided on this issue.)
1990 1990s (e.g. The situation was different in the 1990s.)

It's very important to remember this grammatical rule.

There are one or two cases in which it is acceptable to use an apostrophe to form a plural, purely for the sake of clarity:

  • you can use an apostrophe to show the plurals of single letters:

I've dotted the i's and crossed the t's.

Find all the p's in appear.

  • you can use an apostrophe to show the plurals of single numbers:

Find all the number 7’s.

These are the only cases in which it is generally considered acceptable to use an apostrophe to form plurals: remember that an apostrophe should never be used to form the plural of ordinary nouns, names, abbreviations, or numerical dates.

You can read more rules and guidelines about apostrophes on the Oxford Dictionaries blog. Here you will find further examples of correct and incorrect use of apostrophes.

 

comments (12)

Very funny post!!
Bill Phillips: Happy to make you laugh E
Bon conseil sur la pancarte.
Bill Phillips: My wife would certainly agree Martine
  • Alan
  • United Kingdom
  • 14 Mar 2019, 07:00
It's a very complicated story. Something about MPs going to Ben's party, eating pizzas and probably discussing St Thomas' Hospital and worrying if they will be enough pick 'n' mix for the next debate in the House of Commons. Is there a sequel to this?
Bill Phillips: When to use a colon....but nobody knows that and most don't care.....as for semi colons...
  • Chris
  • England
  • 14 Mar 2019, 07:14
Could you provide a longer explanation please
Bill Phillips: For the full version purchase a copy of "The apostrophe" by Albert D'eath available from larger branches of the Co-op
  • Chad
  • Somewhere in deep space
  • 14 Mar 2019, 08:07
Dreadful is’nt it.
Bill Phillips: Cant' understand why people's get it so wrong:,!?
  • Lisl
  • England
  • 14 Mar 2019, 08:14
I know just how you feel, Bill!
Bill Phillips: Drives me up the wall Liosl
  • Anne
  • United Kingdom
  • 14 Mar 2019, 08:46
Ohhhh where’s that purple felt tip pen when you need it smile
Bill Phillips: What makes it worse is that this looks professionally produced!
I certainly wish the apostrophe was on the letter,s page of the iPad. I use a comma so I don,t have to go to the number,s screen. Luckily, I don,t often use my iPad here,
Bill Phillips: Hahaha
Amazing the rage this evokes.
Bill Phillips: I confess I find it irritating grin
Our new minister at church was a school teacher and is fairly particular about apostrophies etc.as he taught that sort of thing. I have to be very careful when I put the church newsletter together each week!
Bill Phillips: I follow Kurt Vonnegut's advice on Semi colons . In his book A Man Without a Country, Vonnegut writes, “Here is a lesson in creative writing. The first rule: do not use semicolons. They are transvestite hermaphrodites representing absolutely nothing. All they do is show you’ve been to college.”
I saw a van some time ago in Sheffield with a lot of text on the sides and rear - every initial S was preceded by an apostrophe! It look hilarious!
Bill Phillips: It has become an epidemic.....a bit like starting every reply to a question with So...
  • sherri
  • Little Rock, Arkansas, USA
  • 14 Mar 2019, 21:48
sounds like a plan

i much prefer the option of

St Thomas'

i don't always adhere to these, but i am glad i learned them at a young age and i'm appalled at how there are so few people who know or care

(one of my personal pet peeves is the plural of roof is rooves and not even spell check agrees with the dictionary)

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